Greek Grammar

Mytikas Olympos

Verbs - Ρήματα

Verbs are words that state something about the subject of the sentence and may express action, event, or condition. The citation form of the Greek verb is denoted by the 1st person singular of the simple present tense.

The Greek verb can take many different forms which may indicate five properties: person, number, voice, tense and mood. Person is the verb form that expresses the speaker (1st person), the person addressed (2nd person) or the person, animal or thing spoken of (3rd person). Number is the verb form that shows the singularity or the plurality of the subject of the verb. The Greek verb has two numbers, the singular and the plural, and three persons in each number as the English verb but unlike the English verb the person and the number in the Greek verb are included in the ending. Each person either in singular or in plural has a clearly distinguished ending. Therefore the use of personal pronouns before the verbs is not obligatory in Greek. Nevertheless personal pronouns may be used for emphatic reasons. The second person plural is also used as the polite form. The other properties of the Greek verb will be discussed in the following paragraphs.

More information about the verbs in the files below:

pdf document Verbs, voices, conjugations, tenses

pdf document The simple present - Ενεστώτας

pdf document The simple past - Αόριστος

pdf document The Imperfect tense - Παρατατικός

pdf document The simple future - Μέλλοντας στιγμιαίος

pdf document The future continuous - Μέλλοντας διαρκείας

pdf document The present perfect - Παρακείμενος

pdf document The past perfect - Υπερσυντέλικος

pdf document The future perfect - Συντελεσμένος Μέλλοντας

Auxiliary Verbs - Βοηθητικά Ρήματα

In Greek there are two auxiliary verbs: είμαι and έχω. They can be used with full verbs supporting them to create perfect tenses.

pdf document Auxiliary Verbs

Verb Moods - Εγκλίσεις

Moods are forms of the verb that express how the action or event is presented by the speaker. There are three moods in Greek: the indicative, the subjunctive and the imperative. The infinitive and the participle are condidered as moods as well.

The indicative mood (οριστική) presents the action or the event as something real or certain, in other words as an objective fact. This mood is to be found in all tenses. All tenses above were examined in the indicative mood:

Η Ελένη μιλάει ελληνικά. Helen speaks Greek.
Η Μαρία πήγε στην Ελλάδα. Maria went to Greece.

Find more about the moods in the files below:

pdf document The subjunctive mood - Υποτακτική

pdf document The imperative mood - Προστακτική

pdf document The participle - Μετοχή

pdf document The infinitive - Απαρέμφατο

Adverbs - Επιρρήματα
Prepositions - Προθέσεις
Conjunctions - Σύνδεσμοι

You can find information about the adverbs, prepositions and conjunctions in the file below:

pdf document Adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions

Happy link

If the content of this website has helped you in your effort learning Greek and makes you happy visiting it, please consider donating any amount you wish. It shows your appreciation for the work done and it helps keeping it up to date.